1.Hiểu câu hỏi (dưới 1 phút)
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Dưới đây là 5 dạng bài trong IELTS Writing Task 2
- Dạng bài Opinion essay (ý tưởng, ý kiến, đồng ý hay không đồng ý).
Example: In some countries, an increasing number of people are suffering from health problems as a result of eating too much fast food. It is, therefore, necessary for governments to impose a higher tax on this kind of food. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
- Dạng bài Discussion essay (bàn luận thường là cả 2 quan điểm).
Example: A growing number of people feel that animals should not be exploited by people and that they should have the same rights as humans, while others argue that humans must employ animals to satisfy their various needs, including uses for food and research. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
- Dạng bài Solution essay (đưa ra giải pháp).
Example: Global warming is one of the biggest threats humans face in the 21st Century and sea levels are continuing to rise at alarming rates. What problems are associated with this and what are some possible solutions.
- Dạng bài Two-part question (câu hỏi 2 phần).
Example: To some people studying the past has little value in the modern world. Why do you think it is important to do so? What will be the effect if children are not taught history?
2. Brainstorm ý tưởng (2-3 phút)
Khi brainstorm ( lên ý tưởng) nên đọc lại câu hỏi nếu thấy cần để tránh lạc đề và không quan tâm đến ngữ pháp, chính tả khi viết.
- 6 câu hỏi: when, where, how, who, what.
Who?: Who are the participants? Who is affected? Who are the primary actors? Who are the secondary actors?
What?: What is the topic? What is the significance of the topic? What is the basic problem? What are the issues?
Where?: Where does the activity take place? Where does the problem or issue have its source? At what place is the cause or effect of the problem most visible?
When?: When is the issue most apparent? (past? present? future?) When did the issue or problem develop? When is action needed to address the issue or problem?
Why?: Why did the issue or problem arise? Why is it (your topic) an issue or problem at all? Why did the issue or problem develop in the way that it did?
How?: How is the issue or problem significant? How can it be addressed? How does it affect the participants? How can the issue or problem be resolved?
- Viết tự do (freewriting). Viết liên tục tất cả những ý tưởng có trong đầu về câu hỏi.
Example: Some people think that money should be spent on protecting endangered species while others think it is a waste of valuable money. What is your opinion?
Endangered species must be the panda. To protect panda we need to provide them bamboos, but the wood is in danger because people keep cutting down trees. Animals are important, they can be food, pet, help the environment, like bees. One animal will affect the existence of other animals like wolves will eat chicken, and then chickens eat worms. But money can be saved for other stuff like helping others to study or for health, or for the hospital. It is very hard to save these rare animals, there are tons of other animals on the planet. Why do we have to save some of them? But if we don’t they will die out and many others will die out, eventually, something affecting directly to humans will die too, and then humans will die. Viet Nam has many endangered species and the government are trying to save as many as possible because they have meanings and values for the environment and human beings. This year panda is no longer an endangered species, prove that we can do something to save these animals.
- Vẽ biểu dồ hay mindmap.
- Liệt kê
Khá giống với freewriting nhưng viết theo dạng danh sách, liệt kê hết những đầu ý tưởng ngắn có thể nghĩ đến, liên quan đến câu hỏi.
3. Sắp xếp ý tưởng (1-2 phút)
Chọn những ý tưởng trong phần brainstorm để đưa vào bài viết, có thể viết outline như ví dụ hoặc bắt tay thẳng vào viết bài. Gạch dưới những ý tưởng chính quan trọng, chung chung để làm topic sentence, và chọn những ý còn lại để support và giải thích cho topic sentence.
Dàn bài mẫu ví dụ:
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question
Sentence 2- Thesis Statement
Sentence 3- Outline Sentence
- Main Body Paragraph 1
Sentence 1- Topic sentence
Sentence 2- Supporting sentences
- Main Body Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- Topic sentence
Sentence 2- Supporting sentences
Sentence 1- Summary and opinion
5 loại supporting sentence:
- Facts: Nêu một fact gì đó liên quan đến ý tưởng muốn nói.
Ex: It is irrefutable that tobacco products, especially cigarettes, could cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other illnesses. Smoking tobacco kills more than alcohol, drug abuse, car crashes, murders, suicides, and fires combined. Worldwide some 3 million people die from smoking each year, 1 every 10 seconds.
- Example: ví dụ liên quan đến chủ đề.
Ex: Secondly, wild animals provide many valuable substances such as medicine and fur. The horn of the rhinoceros has medicinal value and the fur of the mink is very valuable. The recreational viewing of animals at zoos is also a source of revenue. Furthermore, a dress code sets the “tone” of the company. For example, a law office with all the lawyers and associates wearing suits and formal business attire is viewed as being professional and able to handle court cases.
- Quote: trích dẫn câu nói của 1 chuyên gia hoặc người nổi tiếng, hoặc câu nói phổ biến.
Ex: A good citizen should pay taxes, exercise his voting rights, be law-abiding, do voluntary work to help the government and take a stand if anything goes wrong. Blythe Danner has rightly said, “We all have an obligation as citizens of this earth to leave the world a healthier, cleaner, and better place for our children and future generations.”There is an age-old saying, “We are what we eat”. This holds good even today. Nowadays, good food is hard to find. Many people are eating the quickest and the cheapest foods they can find, which, unfortunately, are the least nutritious. They lead to obesity which can predispose to many diseases such as hypertension and obesity.
- Opposition: nêu 1 ý đối lập rồi giải thích xem ý đó đúng hay sai, đúng trong trường hợp nào, hay tại sao sai.
Ex: Most people try to avoid taxes, but to have the freedoms that we have, we must fund our government agencies. All taxes exist to make our lives better. To enjoy our comparatively trouble-free lives, we must pay taxes. On the other hand, it is also true that the internet is an ocean of knowledge. You can get information about any topic on Earth from the internet. But there is no authenticity of this information. What information to get and from where to get requires a lot of expertise. The television also has a lot of educative programmes but students still need the guidance of the teachers at all stages of learning. Teachers can make even the dull and boring subjects seem interesting. So definitely students learn more from teachers.
- What if..: nếu làm cái này hoặc nếu như thế này thì sẽ như thế nào, tình huống giả tưởng, kết quả giả định.
Ex: Basic medical care is very important for the general public. If people are healthy, there will be more productivity of work and the country will prosper as a whole. There are many people who live below the poverty line and it is the government’s responsibility that they should receive medical aid whenever needed. There are also the elderly who have paid taxes throughout their working life and now need good medical care. If everyone is dressed in the same standard, there will be no judgments made towards other employees on the basis of their clothes. Having a uniform also reduces employee confusion: a clear dress code means they don’t have to wonder “what” to wear or whether something would be appropriate to wear to work.
- Explain: giải thích thêm, nguyên nhân, hậu quả…
Ex: The most important reason for saving wild animals is that they are part of our ecosystem. Every species of wildlife plays a role to maintain the balance of life on Earth. Thus, the loss of any species can affect us directly or indirectly. Let us consider species to be like a brick in the foundation of a building
Và trên đây là cách để lên ý tưởng cho bài viết IELTS Writing Task 2. IELTS Lingo hy vọng rằng với những chia sẻ trên sẽ giúp ích cho các bạn trong quá trình học tập và ôn luyện.
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(Nguồn: IELTS Tố Linh)