Phân loại và cách sử dụng Linking words và Signposting words

Xin chào tất cả các bạn. Bài viết ngày hôm nay, Lingo Connector sẽ chia sẻ đến cho bạn một kiến thức vô cùng hay và bổ ích. Đó chính là Linking words và Signposting words. Trong tiếng anh Linking words là được xem làm cầu nối giúp cho các bạn đạt được điểm cao trong kỳ thi IELTS. Tuy nhiên nếu không sử dụng đúng thì các bạn sẽ bị trừ điểm. Các bạn hãy tham khảo ngay bài viết này để cùng tìm hiểu cách sử dụng nhé!

1.Phân loại mệnh đề quan hệ

1.1 Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định

Là mệnh đề cung cấp thêm thông tin về một người, một vật hoặc một sự việc đã được xác định. Mệnh đề không xác định là mệnh đề không nhất thiết phải có trong câu, không có nó câu vẫn đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ xác định và được ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng một hoặc hai dấu phẩy (,) hay dấu gạch ngang (-).

EX: John’s mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren.

1.2 Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định

Chỉ cho người đọc biết chính xác về đối tượng ( người, vật…) mà chúng ta đang nói đến trong câu. Nếu mệnh đề xác định bị lược bỏ khỏi câu thì ý nghĩa của toàn bộ câu sẽ thay đổi một cách đáng kể. Mệnh đề xác định không bị chia cắt với phần còn lại của câu văn bởi bất kì dấu phẩy hay dấu ngoặc đơn nào.

EX: The woman who visited me in the hospital was very kind.

EX: The umbrella that I bought last week is already broken

2. Mệnh đề danh từ

Cấu trúc

– That/The fact that + Clause 

– What/When/Where/Who/Which/Whether/How + S +V

Ex: That he arrives early surprises me.

      Why they are absent is nothing to me.

Mệnh đề quan hệ thay cho chủ ngữ (who, which)

Ex: 

  • That Canadian girl is his daughter. That Canadian girl is smiling at you.
  • That Canadian girl, who is smiling at you, is his daughter.
  • His newest book will be made into a movie. His newest book was published last year.
  • His newest book, which was published last year, will be made into a movie.

Mệnh đề quan hệ thay cho tân ngữ (whom, which)

Ex: 

  • The man sent us a postcard from Japan. We met the man in our trip.
  • The man whom we met in our trip sent us a postcard from Japan.

Mệnh đề quan hệ dùng “THAT”

Ex:

  • It’s the movie. She hates the movie the most.
  • It’s the movie that she hates the most.

Mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ sở hữu (whose)

Ex: 

  • The baker baked the cake yesterday. I don’t remember the baker’s name.
  • The baker, whose name I don’t remember, baked the cake yesterday.

Trạng từ quan hệ WHEN, WHERE, WHY

Ex:

  • That’s the restaurant where we met for the first time.
  • That’s the restaurant in which we met for the first time.
  • I remember the day when we first met.
  • I remember the day on which we first met.
  • Tell me (the reason) why you came home late.
  • Tell me the reason for which you came home late.

3. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

Rút gọn bằng cách dùng past participle phrase (V-ed phrase)

Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể bị động (passive) ta dùng past participle phrase

Ex: The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting. 

  • The books written by To Hoai are interesting.

Rút gọn bằng to-infinitive

  • Dùng khi danh từ đứng trước có các chữ sau đây bổ nghĩa: the only, the first, the second,… the last, so sánh nhất, mục đích…

Ex:  Tom is the last person who enters the room.   🡪 Tom is the last person to enter the room

  • Động từ là have/had:

Ex: I have many homework that I must do.  🡪 I have many homework to do.

  • Đầu câu có Here (be), There (be)

Ex: There are six letters which have to be written today.  🡪 There are six letters to be written today.

Dùng cụm danh từ (đồng cách danh từ)

Dùng khi mệnh đề tính từ có dạng

S + BE + DANH TỪ /CỤM DANH TỪ/CỤM GIỚI TỪ

Ex: Football, which is a popular sport, is very good for health.

  • Football, a popular sport, is very good for health.

Dùng cụm danh từ (đồng cách danh từ)

Mệnh đề tính từ có dạng be và tính từ/cụm tính từ

Có 2 công thức rút gọn:

  • Công thức 1: Bỏ who, which…to be -> giữ nguyên tính từ phía sau.

Ex: There must be something that is wrong.  🡪 There must be something wrong.

      My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.

      My grandmother, old and sick, never goes out of the house.

  • Công thức 2: Những trường hợp còn lại ta đem tính từ lên trước danh từ

Ex: My grandmother, who is sick, never goes out of the house.

     My sick grandmother never goes out of the house.

Sử dụng trong IELTS Speaking

1. Mệnh đề danh từ

  • What do you think about corruption? (Part 3)
  • I think that corruptions is wrong and that those 

guilty of it should be punished.

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ cũng được dùng trong speaking nhằm bổ sung thông tin cho chủ thể đang nói đến.

  • I really admire Marie Curie who achieved many achievements in her life.

Writing task 1

  • The number of cars (which are) taxed highly is lowest on the chart. 
  • 16% of Irish people were unemployed in 1988, which slumped to roughly 9% in the following four years
  • The percentage of 35-to 39-year-old females who gave birth was still largest, at under 70% in 2008. 
  • The garden where people in the village gathered in their free time was demolished to make way for a new cinema in 2007. 

Writing task 2

  • Personally, I do not believe that it is necessary to exploit animals for our own satisfaction.
  • There is nothing (that is) useful from business management courses.
  • Diets that are high in saturated fat clog up our arteries, thereby reducing the blood flow to our hearts and brains.

3. Signposting words – Từ chỉ dẫn

Được dùng cả trong bài nói và bài viết, với mục đích để sắp xếp nội dung và giúp người nghe/đọc có thể biết được nội dung đang ở đâu.

  • Dùng để đưa ra luận điểm chính: firstly, secondly, next, finally, lastly
  • Dùng để diễn tả trình tự, diễn biến của sự việc: first, then, after that, afterwards
  • Dùng để đưa ra ví dụ: for example, for instance
  • Dùng để kết luận, tóm tắt: In conclusion, in summary
  • Dùng để đưa ra quan điểm cá nhân: to my mind, in my view/opinion, from my point of view, 

* Cách dùng: Những từ trên cần được theo sau bởi dấu phẩy “,” và một mệnh đề

Ex:  Firstly, there are many activities youth can become involved in.

4. Linking words – Từ nối

Dùng để nối các ý lại với nhau để bài nói/viết trở nên mướt hơn.

* Vị trí của các từ để nối:

1 Link word + noun, clause
Clause + link word + noun
2 Link word, + clause
3 Clause 1, link word + clause 2
4 Link word + clause 1, clause 2

Sử dụng trong IELTS

Linking và signposting words là một phần quan trọng trong IELTS, chiếm 1 tiêu chí trong 4 tiêu chí đánh giá (Coherence and cohesion). Phần ngữ pháp này được sử dụng nhiều cả trong speaking và writing.

In the past, shopping was a routine domestic task. Many people nowadays regard it as a hobby. To what extent do you think this is a positive trend? (writing task 2)

Going shopping used to be a chore, but recently it has become a leisure activity or a pleasant outing. To my mind, it is debatable whether this can be regarded as a wholly positive development.

For earlier generations, buying food or consumer products involved visiting several shops, each with the same limited range on offer. Customers had less money and credit was not widely available. By contrast, shoppers nowadays can find almost anything in the supermarket or shopping mall. The comfortable environment, the variety of goods and attractions such as cafés and cinemas make spending money enjoyable.

Nowadays, with many parents working full-time, families have little time together. In my experience, it is normal to see families in the local shopping mall at weekends. Undoubtedly, one of the benefits of this is that they are together as a family. Nevertheless, this is not ideal, especially if it leaves no time for other activities, such as sport.

Another negative result of this change in attitudes is the effect it has on young people all over the world, who spend time in shopping malls. The reasons for this are the influence of advertising and the availability of credit cards. On the one hand, they are with friends in a safe environment, but on the other, it can tempt them to buy things they do not really need and may cause them to get into debt. Moreover, it would be better for their health if they met friends to go swimming.

In conclusion, I would like to suggest that although shopping now is less tedious, this is not necessarily a positive trend. It may be good for the retailers, but not for consumers if it replaces other, healthier activities.

Describe a happy childhood event. (Speaking part 2)

I’m going to talk about a happy childhood event that I remember, and that event was my 13th birthday. 

It was 10 years ago now because I’m 23. My birthday is on the 7th May. What happened was my parents surprised me on my birthday by telling me that they were going to take me to a theme part that is a few hours from our house. I’d never been before – it had only been open a few months and they knew that I really wanted to go. As I recall it was a Saturday that we went. They didn’t tell me until the morning when I woke up that day.

My whole family was involved in the event. I have a brother and a sister so of course they came as well as my Mum and Dad, and not only that, we also picked up my grandparents on the way so they could join us. They were too old to go on the rides but it was still a great trip out for them!

The theme park was really amazing. There was a huge roller coaster which I remember was really scary but still excellent fun. One particular thing I remember is the ghost train. My younger sister was not allowed to go on the ride because she was too young and she was really upset and jealous of me and my brother! I think it was lucky she didn’t though. It was really realistic – there were real people in there who were actually dressed up as ghosts and they jumped out just when you weren’t expecting it – it made us jump so many times!

How I felt really depended on what I was doing. Obviously I was excited the whole day, but I remember that I felt really exhilarated when I was on the rides such as the roller coaster, and scared but still excited on the ghost train.

The reason that I remember it so well is that I had been so desperate to go to the theme park and I’d been talking to my friends at school for ages about how I wanted to go. So it was so great when I found out that I could. Also I remember it so well because all of our family was together. My Dad was pretty busy most of the time with his work so we didn’t always have much time to do things together when I was a younger. 

So for these reasons, is was a really special occasion that I’ll never forget.

Trên đây là tổng hợp các sử dụng Linking words và Signposting words trong IETLS, chúc các bạn học tập tốt và đạt điểm cao trong kỳ thi IETLS của mình nhé!

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