Completing tables/charts/note/diagrams là một trong những dạng bài phổ biến trong bài thi IELTS Reading. Hãy cùng IELTS Lingo theo dõi bài viết dưới đây để hiểu rõ hơn về cách làm cho dạng bài Completing Diagrams nhé.
1. Dạng bài completing tables, charts, note, diagrams là gì?
1.1. Khái niệm về dạng bài Completing Diagrams
Completing tables/charts/note/diagram hay Summary Completion và Flowchart Completion là những dạng bài tương tự nhau. Bạn phải sử dụng từ (words) trong bài đọc cho sẵn để điền vào chỗ trống. Completing Diagram yêu cầu thí sinh điền từ chú thích vào chỗ trống dưới dạng một biểu đồ. Dạng bài này có thể coi như một mảng nhỏ của dạng bài Gap-fill.
1.2. Các lỗi thí sinh hay mắc phải khi làm bài completing tables, charts, note, diagrams
Khi làm kiểu bài Completing tables, charts, note, diagrams trong bài thi IELTS Reading, thí sinh thường mắc 2 lỗi sau:
- Điền nhiều hơn số từ cho phép vào chỗ trống: Đây là lỗi phổ biến nhất mà hầu như thí sinh nào cũng mắc phải ít nhất một lần. Nguyên nhân là kiểu bài này không quá khó. Thế nên, thí sinh khá chủ quan không đọc kỹ đề bài yêu cầu về số từ trước khi bắt tay vào làm. Vì thế, thí sinh cần phải cẩn thận, đọc kỹ đề bài, xem xét số từ quy định trước khi bắt tay vào làm bài.
- Thí sinh không hiểu được câu hỏi đang hỏi gì. Trong một số trường hợp, đề bài đưa ra “quá khó” với dạng đề yêu cầu học thuật hoặc chuyên môn hóa cao, đòi hỏi thí sinh phải nắm được từ vựng hoặc thuật ngữ chuyên ngành nếu muốn làm tốt. Tuy nhiên, những từ vựng chuyên môn cao cũng sẽ được hạn chế không đưa vào bài làm khó thí sinh.
2. Cách làm dạng bài completing tables, charts, note, diagrams trong IELTS Reading
Dưới đây là 5 bước bỏ túi làm dạng bài completing tables, charts, note, diagrams:
- Bước 1: Đọc kỹ đề bài, xác định chính xác số từ cho phép điền vào chỗ trống.
- Bước 2: Xem xét và phân tích cấu trúc câu. Dựa vào ngữ pháp của câu bạn có thể đoán được loại từ sẽ điền. Thí sinh cần lưu ý đa phần chú thích sẽ là một cụm danh từ thay vì là một câu hoàn chỉnh. Hãy chú ý điểm này sẽ giúp ích khá nhiều cho bạn trong việc xác định từ loại.
- Bước 3: Tìm và xác định được thông tin cần đọc trong bài để tìm từ điền vào chỗ trống. Kiểu bài này sẽ không yêu cầu bạn đọc quá nhiều. Thường thông tin chỉ nằm trong 1 – 2 đoạn văn. Lúc này, bạn hãy xem có từ chuyên môn nào không hiểu trong câu hỏi. Sau đó, xem trong bài đọc. Thông tin cung cấp thường sẽ không có quá nhiều từ chuyên môn cao.
- Bước 4: Scan bài đọc để có thể nắm được thông tin trong bài đọc và hiểu được cấu trúc câu.
- Bước 5: Xác định từ cần điền vào chỗ trống bằng việc so sánh thông tin giữa bài đọc và câu hỏi.
3. Áp dụng cách làm completing tables, charts, note, diagrams trong IELTS Reading
Based on the passage, complete the blanks. Choose no more than two words from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 9 – 13 on your answer sheet.
Raising the Mary Rose
|On 19 July 1545, English and French fleets were engaged in a sea battle off the coast of southern England in the area of water called the Solent, between Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight. Among the English vessels was a warship by the name of Mary Rose. Built in Portsmouth some 35 years earlier, she had had a long and successful fighting career, and was a favourite of King Henry VIII. Accounts of what happened to the ship vary: while witnesses agree that she was not hit by the French, some maintain that she was outdated, overladen and sailing too low in the water, others that she was mishandled by undisciplined crew. What is undisputed, however, is that the Mary Rose sank into the Solent that day, taking at least 500 men with her. After the battle, attempts were made to recover the ship, but these failed.
The Mary Rose came to rest on the seabed, lying on her starboard (right) side at an angle of approximately 60 degrees. The hull (the body of the ship) acted as a trap for the sand and mud carried by Solent currents. As a result, the starboard side filled rapidly, leaving the exposed port (left) side to be eroded by marine organisms and mechanical degradation. Because of the way the ship sank, nearly all of the starboard half survived intact. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the entire site became covered with a layer of hard grey clay, which minimised further erosion.
Then, on 16 June 1836, some fishermen in the Solent found that their equipment was caught on an underwater obstruction, which turned out to be the Mary Rose. Diver John Deane happened to be exploring another sunken ship nearby, and the fishermen approached him, asking him to free their gear. Deane dived down, and found the equipment caught on a timber protruding slightly from the seabed. Exploring further, he uncovered several other timbers and a bronze gun. Deane continued diving on the site intermittently until 1840, recovering several more guns, two bows, various timbers, part of a pump and various other small finds.
The Mary Rose then faded into obscurity for another hundred years. But in 1965, military historian and amateur diver Alexander McKee, in conjunction with the British Sub-Aqua Club, initiated a project called ‘Solent Ships’. While on paper this was a plan to examine a number of known wrecks in the Solent, what McKee really hoped for was to find the Mary Rose. Ordinary search techniques proved unsatisfactory, so McKee entered into collaboration with Harold E. Edgerton, professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1967, Edgerton’s side-scan sonar systems revealed a large, unusually shaped object, which McKee believed was the Mary Rose.
Further excavations revealed stray pieces of timber and an iron gun. But the climax to the operation came when, on 5 May 1971, part of the ship’s frame was uncovered. McKee and his team now knew for certain that they had found the wreck, but were as yet unaware that it also housed a treasure trove of beautifully preserved artefacts. Interest ^ in the project grew, and in 1979, The Mary Rose Trust was formed, with Prince Charles as its President and Dr Margaret Rule its Archaeological Director. The decision whether or not to salvage the wreck was not an easy one, although an excavation in 1978 had shown that it might be possible to raise the hull. While the original aim was to raise the hull if at all feasible, the operation was not given the go-ahead until January 1982, when all the necessary information was available.
An important factor in trying to salvage the Mary Rose was that the remaining hull was an open shell. This led to an important decision being taken: namely to carry out the lifting operation in three very distinct stages. The hull was attached to a lifting frame via a network of bolts and lifting wires. The problem of the hull being sucked back downwards into the mud was overcome by using 12 hydraulic jacks. These raised it a few centimetres over a period of several days, as the lifting frame rose slowly up its four legs. It was only when the hull was hanging freely from the lifting frame, clear of the seabed and the suction effect of the surrounding mud, that the salvage operation progressed to the second stage. In this stage, the lifting frame was fixed to a hook attached to a crane, and the hull was lifted completely clear of the seabed and transferred underwater into the lifting cradle. This required precise positioning to locate the legs into the stabbing guides’ of the lifting cradle. The lifting cradle was designed to fit the hull using archaeological survey drawings, and was fitted with air bags to provide additional cushioning for the hull’s delicate timber framework. The third and final stage was to lift the entire structure into the air, by which time the hull was also supported from below. Finally, on 11 October 1982, millions of people around the world held their breath as the timber skeleton of the Mary Rose was lifted clear of the water, ready to be returned home to Portsmouth.
Bạn có thể áp dụng cách làm bài để phân tích và ứng dụng để giải ví dụ theo các bước:
- Bước 1: Số từ được phép điền là 2 từ.
- Bước 2: Phân tích cấu trúc. Sau mệnh đề quan hệ “(which was) attached to hull by wires” sẽ cần điền một danh từ.
- Bước 3: Dựa vào các từ chuyên môn “hull”, “wire” để xác định thông tin trong bài.
- Bước 4: Scan thông tin trong bài. “The hull was attached to a lifting frame via a network of bolts and lifting wires”, “The problem of the hull being sucked back downwards into the mud was overcome by using 12 hydraulic jacks”
- Bước 5: So sánh thông tin giữa câu hỏi và bài đọc, từ đó chọn ra đáp án
Đáp án: 9. Lifting frame; 10. hydraulic jacks
4. Bài tập thực hành
Choose one word from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 20 – 26 on your answer sheet.
The Falkirk Wheel
|The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland is the world’s first and only rotating boat lift. Opened in 2002, it is central to the ambitious £84.5m Millennium Link project to restore navigability across Scotland by reconnecting the historic waterways of the Forth & Clyde and Union Canals.
The major challenge of the project lays in the fact that the Forth & Clyde Canal is situated 35 metres below the level of the Union Canal. Historically, the two canals had been joined near the town of Falkirk by a sequence of 11 locks – enclosed sections of canal in which the water level could be raised or lowered – that stepped down across a distance of 1.5 km. This had been dismantled in 1933, thereby breaking the link. When the project was launched in 1994, the British Waterways authority were keen to create a dramatic twenty-first-century landmark which would not only be a fitting commemoration of the Millennium, but also a lasting symbol of the economic regeneration of the region.
Numerous ideas were submitted for the project, including concepts ranging from rolling eggs to tilting tanks, from giant seesaws to overhead monorails. The eventual winner was a plan for the huge rotating steel boat lift which was to become The Falkirk Wheel. The unique shape of the structure is claimed to have been inspired by various sources, both manmade and natural, most notably a Celtic double headed axe, but also the vast turning propeller of a ship, the ribcage of a whale or the spine of a fish.
The various parts of The Falkirk Wheel were all constructed and assembled, like one giant toy building set, at Butterley Engineering’s Steelworks in Derbyshire, some 400 km from Falkirk. A team there carefully assembled the 1,200 tonnes of steel, painstakingly fitting the pieces together to an accuracy of just 10 mm to ensure a perfect final fit. In the summer of 2001, the structure was then dismantled and transported on 35 lorries to Falkirk, before all being bolted back together again on the ground, and finally lifted into position in five large sections by crane. The Wheel would need to withstand immense and constantly changing stresses as it rotated, so to make the structure more robust, the steel sections were bolted rather than welded together. Over 45,000 bolt holes were matched with their bolts, and each bolt was hand-tightened.
The Wheel consists of two sets of opposing axe-shaped arms, attached about 25 metres apart to a fixed central spine. Two diametrically opposed water-filled ‘gondolas’, each with a capacity of 360,000 litres, are fitted between the ends of the arms. These gondolas always weigh the same, whether or not they are carrying boats. This is because, according to Archimedes’ principle of displacement, floating objects displace their own weight in water. So when a boat enters a gondola, the amount of water leaving the gondola weighs exactly the same as the boat. This keeps the Wheel balanced and so, despite its enormous mass, it rotates through 180° in five and a half minutes while using very little power. It takes just 1.5 kilowatt-hours (5.4 MJ) of energy to rotate the Wheel -roughly the same as boiling eight small domestic kettles of water.
Boats needing to be lifted up enter the canal basin at the level of the Forth & Clyde Canal and then enter the lower gondola of the Wheel. Two hydraulic steel gates are raised, so as to seal the gondola off from the water in the canal basin. The water between the gates is then pumped out. A hydraulic clamp, which prevents the arms of the Wheel moving while the gondola is docked, is removed, allowing the Wheel to turn. In the central machine room, an array of ten hydraulic motors then begins to rotate the central axle. The axle connects to the outer arms of the Wheel, which begin to rotate at a speed of 1/8 of a revolution per minute. As the wheel rotates, the gondolas are kept in the upright position by a simple gearing system. Two eight-metre-wide cogs orbit a fixed inner cog of the same width, connected by two smaller cogs travelling in the opposite direction to the outer cogs – so ensuring that the gondolas always remain level. When the gondola reaches the top, the boat passes straight onto the aqueduct situated 24 metres above the canal basin.
The remaining 11 metres of lift needed to reach the Union Canal is achieved by means of a pair of locks. The Wheel could not be constructed to elevate boats over the full 35-metre difference between the two canals, owing to the presence of the historically important Antonine Wall, which was built by the Romans in the second century AD. Boats travel under this wall via a tunnel, then through the locks, and finally on to the Union Canal.
|20. gates||21. clamp||22. rotate||23. cogs||24. aqueduct||25. wall||26. locks|
( Nguồn: TIW)
Qua bài viết trên, mong rằng bạn đã bỏ túi cho mình chiến thuật để làm bài completing tables, charts, note, diagrams hiệu quả. Để học thêm các phương pháp làm bài cho từng dạng bài cụ thể trong IELTS Reading, bạn có thể tham khảo khóa học của IELTS Lingo nhé. Và đừng quên theo dõi thư viện của Lingo để học thêm nhiều bài học bổ ích khác nhé.